Voltage Stabilizer

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Voltage Stabilizer

A voltage stabilizer can be described as an electrical appliance that is used to stabilize the voltage-current being provided to gadgets like ACs, Industrial Machines, Lab Equipment and Computers. The main reason behind its use is to prevent the appliances from being affected by severe voltage fluctuations, hence sometimes being referred to as Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) as well. People prefer to use stabilizers for appliances that are costly and therefore have a lot of monetary risk associated with them getting affected.

How does it work?

A voltage stabilizer works just like a transformer. The input current is connected with primary windings and the output is received from secondary windings. When the voltage that is coming in decreases, it automatically activates an electromagnetic relay which then adds turns to the secondary winding which makes up for the loss in voltage. On the other hand, when the voltage is more than required, in such a situation the reverse of the process happens to protect the appliance from that extra current.

The Need for having a Voltage Stabilizer

Every electrical appliance is pre-designed to handle different input voltages. The sensitivity of those appliances, however, differs from product to product. Some, for instance, will be able to tolerate a plus or minus of 10 percent of the average voltage while some will only be able to tolerate fluctuations of 5 percent.

Wherever there is electricity provision, voltage fluctuations are common due to a number of reasons. It could be due to some fault in wiring, a natural disaster or the periodic turning off of devices. These fluctuations are really harmful to the appliance’s performance. Both over voltage and under voltage can bring in various problems that are further listed below in the table.

Long Period of Over Voltage

Long Period of Under Voltage

The life of the appliance de rates

Reduced performance of the equipment

Insulation damage

The speed of motors reduces

Loss to cables


In order to prevent such kind of damage to appliances, it is important that stabilizers are used.

Types of Stabilizers

Previously, voltage stabilizers were manually operated or built with electromechanical relays that would act as switching devices. Later, there came the automatic voltage stabilizers in which electronic circuitry automated the process. Servo stabilizers are also another type in which the voltage correction is done continuously without any switching. The three main types of stabilizers have been further explained below;

  1. Relay type

In this, the stabilization is done by switching the relays either for boosting or for bucking operation. These stabilizers work best on appliances which have a voltage input variation range of 6 to 15 percent and output variation range of 5 to 10 percent. These are used for low rated appliances which are not that costly.

  1. Servo controlled

This uses a servo motor to process the stabilization of the voltage current. These are more commonly used for appliances with voltage variation of 1 to 50 percent. It comes in single phase, three phase balanced and three phase unbalanced versions. They have a higher reliability but it needs to be maintained for the motors that are present.

  1. Static voltage

Static voltage stabilizers make use of a power electronic converter to regulate the voltage. With these stabilizers, an excellent regulation can be achieved compared to the other two types. These stabilizers are more popular because of their compact size and an extremely fast connection speed. There also isn’t any maintenance required since there are no extra parts like motors.

One may think that there isn’t actually a need to buy a stabilizer for your appliances but spending a few dollars in order to protect something that costs 30 or 40 times the price is clearly justifiable and definitely a smart choice to make.

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